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Dental arch dimensions could be used for race determination and sex determination in forensic odontology, treatment planning and management of malocclusion in orthodontic for local population. As the different human ethnic group display unique dental arch characteristics, to compare the dimensional characteristics of dental arch between Bamar and Karen ethnic group, maxillary and mandibular impression taking was done from 104 Bamar subjects of 16-18 years old with normal occlusion from Sagaing Township and Shwebo Township and 104 Karen subjects of 16-18 years old with normal occlusion from Yangon Region. The maxillary and mandibular inter-canine arch widths (UICW, LICW), inter-molar arch widths (UIMW, LIMW), anterior arch lengths (UAAL, LAAL), posterior arch lengths (UPAL, LPAL) were measured on the cast models by using a digital caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). This study was cross sectional comparative study and collected data were statistically analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (version 22.0). The mean arch dimensions of Bamar in Sagaing region were; 29.32 mm for UICW, 21.59 mm for LICW, 49.35 mm for UIMW, 39.84 mm for LIMW, 18.07 mm for UAAL, 12.60 mm for LAAL, 16.62 mm for UPAL, 15.82 mm for LPAL, 1.10 mm for depth of Curve of Spee. The mean arch dimensions of Karen in Yangon region were; 34.97 mm for UICW, 25.23 mm for LICW, 54.05 mm for UIMW, 43.66 mm for LIMW, 24.59 mm for UAAL, 17.09 mm for LAAL, 20.60 mm for UPAL, 20.30 mm for LPAL, 1.54 mm for depth of Curve of Spee.. All of the arch dimension of Karens were significantly larger than those of Bamars. Significant sexual dimorphism of dental arch dimensions in both Bamar and Karen was found. This study provides the useful information for comparative studies among the ethnic groups of Myanmar.
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